What is a Bloomer?

A Bloomer is a woman who…

♥ has come to full maturity

♥ embraces her age (age is just a number)

♥ looks after herself

♥ loves herself

♥ is self-compassionate

♥ encourages and supports other women

♥ accepts herself

♥ is true to herself

♥ strives to be her best

♥ makes the rest of her life the best of her life

♥ is resilient — bounces back

♥ nurtures herself

♥ can say no — sets limits

A Bloomer lifestyle is one which is

♦ balanced — work, play, rest/body, mind, soul

♦ active

♦ nutritionally sound

♦ fun — laugh, love, live, dance

To Bloom is to strive towards greatness. To Bloom is to flourish.

Angela G. Gentile, MSW, RSW (Specialization in Aging)

Author of Flourish or Fade: A guide to total well-being for women at midlife and beyond

Cycling to Work for 30 Years

27 Apr 2021

My husband, Agapito, has been cycling to work for the past 30 years. He remembers back in 1991 when he made the decision to ride his bike to work. We were married in 1990, and that winter we had moved into our first house. He had started taking the bus to work, but he found he didn’t like the public transit system. So, he started riding his bike. He never looked back.

Spring 1992. No helmet!
30 Nov 2020

He rides in all kinds of weather. Winnipeg winters can be brutally cold.

26 Jan 2021

His face covering gets all frosty in the cold weather. The winters are hard on bikes and he figures he went through about 7-8 so far. He has always bought used bikes.

04 Dec 2014 – “Tip of the day: Lots of free, all-day parking all over the city, even downtown.” 
04 Sep 2015 – “Got a bit of rain on the commute home. Managed to keep all my valuables dry under the garbage bag.”

He rides rain or shine!

I wonder how long he will continue to ride his bike?

27 Dec 2021

Congratulations on 30 years of cycling, Agapito! I wish you many more years of riding your bike.

Angela G. Gentile

Flourish or Fade: A guide to total well-being for women at midlife and beyond – Book Now Available

Angela Gentile’s newest book is now available for purchase from Amazon.

>>>Buy the Paperback on Amazon ($16.99 USD) 

>>>Buy the ebook (Kindle) on Amazon ($5.99 USD)


Flourish or Fade: A guide to total well-being for women at midlife and beyond provides you with the information and tools needed to improve life satisfaction. The Flower of Wellness Method will help you devise a plan to balance your body, mind, and soul. 

You will learn how to enhance your overall well-being by exploring the ten dimensions of wellness: 

Physical, Emotional, Brain, Social, Sexual, Spiritual, Environmental, Recreational, Financial, and Occupational.

This anti-ageist, realistic, and optimistic approach to life in the middle years and beyond will provide you with inspiration and tips that will have you feeling confident, happy, and satisfied with whatever may come your way. 

The Flower of Wellness Method is a fresh and contemporary approach to finding balance.

Do you want to flourish or fade in the later years? It’s your choice. 

Angela G. Gentile, M.S.W., R.S.W., is a registered clinical social worker/specialist in aging with more than 25 years of experience working with older adults and their families. She was born and raised in Ontario and now lives in Winnipeg, Manitoba.


“Flourish or Fade” Book Launch Giveaways and Contest Details

Celebrate National Women’s Health Week with us! On May 11, 2021, at 8:00 pm CST, Angela G. Gentile will be hosting a Zoom book launch for her newest book, “Flourish or Fade.” Register on Eventbrite to attend. There are a number of awesome books, services, and products that have been donated by some amazing women to help make this book event special. Please see the list below and enter to win! (see Contest Details below).

Flourish or Fade

1. Angela G. Gentile: “Flourish or Fade: A guide to total well-being for women at midlife and beyond” (paperback, $21.00 CAD value). Now available!

BrainShape Accountability Calls

2. Dr. Andrea Wilkinson: BrainShape Accountability Calls ($300.00 CAD value)

“Free Phase II Accountability Calls with Dr. Andrea of BrainShape” ($300 CAD value)

Accountability Appointments take place via TWO 60-minute video calls. 

CALL 1: Discuss your concerns and struggles + build a plan to help you address them (e.g., sleeping difficulties, chronically stressed, low energy, lacking mental focus, etc.) Whatever the problem, let’s talk about it & build a plan you can implement right away. 

CALL 2: Accountability Appointment to check-in on the goals you set out in Call 1.

The winner of the BrainShape Services prize will book their INITIAL CALL by visiting www.BrainShape.ca/call and book a time in Dr. Andrea’s calendar. This is a free offering of the supportive elements provided inside the Brain Vitality Blueprint, and helps people take the first step towards improving their health and well-being. 

How I Made a Huge Mess of My Life

3. Billie Best: “How I Made a Huge Mess of My Life” (paperback, $12.99 USD value)


The World Came to Us

4. Molly Duncan Campbell: “The World Came to Us” (paperback, $12.99 USD value)


The Playground of Possibilities Card Deck

5. Kay Ross: “The Playground of Possibilities” (card deck, $20.00 USD value)

This card deck is a self-help, personal-development tool with 52 questions for you to ask yourself. Every question starts with “What would be possible for me if I…?”, to prompt you to let go of your old, limiting thoughts, beliefs and stories about yourself and the world, choose more useful ones, take inspired action, and improvise more resourceful, joyful ways of being. Kay was born in Scotland, grew up in Australia, and has lived in Hong Kong for 27 years. She’s passionate about personal development and healing, and is also an improv performer. The deck costs $20 USD plus postage from Hong Kong (the full amount depends on the number of decks ordered and the destination).  


Seize the Moment!

6. Camille Goscicki, of Vitalaging4women, “Seize the Moment! A Guide to Living in the Present” (ebook, $4.99 USD value)

Do you live with regrets from the past, and fear the unknowns of the future?

It’s time to let go of fears and regrets and live for today. Seize the Moment! is your mini-guide to grab the present moment and live for today. It includes three bonus worksheets that will help you become more mindful. (Everyday mindfulness tips, practicing mindfulness, and becoming present for peace of mind.) Note: eReader not included.


The Unexpected Journey of Caring

7. Donna Thomson: The Unexpected Journey of Caring (hardcover book, $39.00 CAD value).

“The Unexpected Journey of Caring: The Transformation From Loved One to Caregiver” by Donna Thomson and Zachary White, PhD with a foreword by Judy Woodruff (Rowman & Littlefield, 2019) Available at all online booksellers Hardcover – $39.00 CAD)

With a foreword by Judy Woodruff, The Unexpected Journey of Caring is a practical guide to finding personal meaning in the 21st century care experience.

Personal transformation is usually an experience we actively seek out—not one that hunts us down. Becoming a caregiver is one transformation that comes at us, requiring us to rethink everything we once knew. Everything changes—responsibilities, beliefs, hopes, expectations, and relationships. Caregiving is not just a role reserved for “saints”—eventually, everyone is drafted into the caregiver role. It’s not a role people medically train for; it’s a new type of relationship initiated by a loved one’s need for care. And it’s a role that cannot be quarantined to home because it infuses all aspects of our lives.

Caregivers today find themselves in need of a crash course in new and unfamiliar skills. They must not only care for a loved one, but also access hidden community resources, collaborate with medical professionals, craft new narratives consistent with the changing nature of their care role, coordinate care with family, seek information and peer support using a variety of digital platforms, and negotiate social support—all while attempting to manage conflicts between work, life, and relationship roles. The moments that mark us in the transition from loved one to caregiver matter because if we don’t make sense of how we are being transformed, we risk undervaluing our care experiences, denying our evolving beliefs, becoming trapped by other’s misunderstandings, and feeling underappreciated, burned out, and overwhelmed.

Informed by original caregiver research and proven advocacy strategies, this book speaks to caregiving as it unfolds, in all of its confusion, chaos, and messiness. Readers won’t find well-intentioned clichés or care stereotypes in this book. There are no promises to help caregivers return to a life they knew before caregiving. No, this book greets caregivers where they are in their journey—new or chronic—not where others expect (or want) them to be.

“Nobody grows up planning to be a caregiver, but many of us will become one and sometimes when we least expect it. Thomson and White bring powerful insights to help understand what it means to be a caregiver and how to truly support those of us who will travel this unexpected journey.” – Samir K. Sinha, director of geriatrics, Sinai Health System and University Health Network, Toronto; health policy research director, National Institute on Ageing


Keeping it Together

8. Eleanor Silverberg: “Keeping it Together: How to Cope as a Family Caregiver without Losing Your Sanity” (paperback, $20.00 CAD value)


I Could Be Wrong

9. Billie Best: I Could Be Wrong (paperback, $7.99 USD value)


Contest Details:

  • Contest open to adults aged 18+, worldwide. No purchase necessary.
  • Identify which prize(s) you would like to win. Submit the item name/number, your name and email address to Angela at caretoage@gmail.com. (Your name and email address will not be given out to anyone else, unless it is required in order for you to obtain your prize(s)).
  • One entry per person, per item.
  • Entries accepted from Wednesday April 21, 2021 at 5:00 pm CST until Saturday May 15, 2021 at 12:00 noon CST.
  • Winners will be drawn on or before Sunday May 16, 2021 at 12:00 noon CST.
  • Qualified winners will be notified by email and your mailing address will be required so we can ship you your prize.
  • Every attempt will be made to get your prize to you, however, in the unfortunate event there are restrictions in your country, you will be ineligible. In that case, another draw will be made to seek a suitable winner.

Good luck!

Angela G. Gentile, MSW, RSW


Stop the Spray Canada – An Interview with Ken Wilson, Founder

Ken Wilson, Founder of Stop the Spray Canada Facebook Group. Trapper/Conservationist from Ontario.

By Angela Gentile

April 1, 2021

Angela: I am Angela Gentile, I am interviewing my dad Ken Wilson who is passionate about the forests of Canada, especially in Ontario. He told me about this herbicide spray that contains the active ingredient glyphosate that they are spraying on the forest that is killing a lot of the plants and vegetation. Glyphosate is found in herbicides such as Roundup, VisionMax, and others. There are other herbicides used in the forest such as WeedMaster (which contains 2,4-D and Dicamba). Ken has noticed a decline in wildlife because there are no plants and berries for them to eat in sprayed areas. There are all kinds of problems going on. I had some questions for my dad and decided to interview him. I hope that by him sharing his experiences might help us understand what is going on and what we can do to help. So, start by telling me a little bit about yourself, where you were born, and where you live now. 

Ken: I was born and raised in the Rainy River District in the town of Fort Frances, Ontario. I spent most of my 76 years in Fort Frances. I was in Toronto for a period of time, when I did my journeyman electrician and I came back here to Fort Frances in 1978. We used to come back hunting. Every fall we would spend a week hunting deer and moose up here and then go back to Toronto. Now this is my home for sure. I am not going back to Toronto, for a while, that’s for sure. Anyway, this glyphosate-based herbicide we are talking about, is a deadly thing in our forest up here. 

Angela: How long have you been enjoying the forest? What do you do in the forest?

Ken: Well, I am a seasoned trapper. I’ve been trapping for approximately 65 years of my 76 years. It’s very sickening when you see the broadleaf plants are being destroyed by this glyphosate. The moose, the deer, everything, they disappear when there are no broadleaf plants for them. The animals can’t survive without these food sources. And we all know that, the Ministry of Natural Resources and the logging companies have been spraying for the last 40 years up here. When it originally started, it wasn’t really noticeable. There weren’t many cuts affected. But when you see a small percentage of the forest sprayed yearly, it adds up. There’s hardly anything left for the animals to eat. They can’t live on conifers. They have to have deciduous trees. Deciduous trees have the berries, leaves and browse (tips of deciduous trees). The blueberries and all the broadleaf plants are disappearing when they spray–and they don’t come back. I was told by a forester one time that they come back. Well, they do come back, but, they are stunted and they are unhealthy shrubs. They just can’t win the battle over glyphosate, or whatever name they call it. 

Angela: So, you said you are a trapper, you’ve been trapping for many years. What other kinds of things do you do in the forest? 

Ken: Well, we fish just about every week. I could live on fish – or whatever wildlife I trap. I try to eat most of the animals we trap (that are edible). I could pretty well live in the bush. Except I like the milk! I need milk for my coffee. So, I have to go to town every couple weeks.

Angela: And what about hunting? 

Ken: Well, we always try to harvest a deer and make sausage or pepperettes. My wife usually gets a moose – if I don’t, my wife will. They are getting few and far between. At one time we could count 6 or 7 moose in one cut (recently harvested area). And now you can’t even count 2 moose in a whole season anywhere out there, in this 9A area, which is north of the Rainy River District, it’s in the Kenora District. 

Angela: So do you believe, what you just said about there is less moose, do you believe that’s because of the spray?

Ken: Well, the spraying has cut down the plants so much that when the moose do find a patch to browse, two or three of them will get in there and then the wolves would join them and take one or two of the little ones. They will also take the adults. The deer are non-existent right now up there. They had a couple bad winters and springs and they are not native to the boreal forest in that area. They just can’t survive when we get a bad winter of 100 inches of snow. They just don’t make it. So, now it is a moose area. And there are less of them. 

Angela: So, you mentioned you noticed the spraying started 40 years ago, so when you think about what you saw when you were younger, how does it look different now? Why are they spraying and what’s going on?

Ken: The conifer is a preferred tree by the large forestry corporations and apparently the Ministry is gung-ho for letting them grow conifer plantations (which are not ecosystems). But, the deciduous trees are the ones that feed the people and feed the animals in the bush. None of the cuts that are sprayed come back with lush deciduous trees. The conifer takes over after they spray it, and all the seed trees and berry bushes on the ground get shaded out by conifers that were planted and grow in the sprayed area. There are very few berry trees left. The bears will feed in the areas where there are lush blueberries. I have seen the spray come on August 20th, when the bears were bulking up on blueberries. That is their main diet. The bears ate the berries that had been sprayed. The berry plants were wilting, and the bears continued to eat the blueberries. It was sad to see them eating those poisoned berries. The glyphosate-covered berries must be doing them some harm. There are places in California that have proven that glyphosate does cause cancer. So, what does it do to the animals?

They have signs posted that say, “Do not eat the berries for one year” after they are sprayed. But the animals can’t read those signs. And it’s sad, it’s just so sad that the animals have to be exposed to that.

Ken Wilson, Trapper/Conservationist

It’s a real lush area until they spray it. The bears are in there eating, they spray it, and they continue to eat it for probably about one month, until the leaves are all down. I am sure it’s harmful. The sprayed berries and vegetation has got to be harmful to all the wildlife that is sprayed. 

Angela: How does the spray affect the water?

Ken: I know on our trapline, we are right down to maybe a dozen otter on the entire 150 square miles that we trap. And I am sure the glyphosate is getting into the water, and doing something to the otter’s main diet of clams and crayfish. Otters catch them readily – and I am sure that’s what’s causing them to be sick. I haven’t caught a healthy otter in two years. It’s getting worse every year, and this year I only saw two otters. So, I don’t know what’s going to happen with the otter. There has to be something getting into the water. The only thing different is they are putting glyphosate into the land. It binds to the soil and if it rains soon after, the runoff from the plantation can cause glyphosate to get into the water. They say it doesn’t get there, that it just evaporates. Well, I don’t believe that. It gets into the water system. I am told there are studies that prove it.

Angela: So, what do you want your fellow Canadians to about this? Because I just learned about this a month and a half ago when you showed me that notice of spraying glyphosate on the forest. I couldn’t believe it, and you showed me proof. What do you want people to know about this?

Ken: Well, glyphosate is outlawed for use on lawns. It’s outlawed in Ontario to use Roundup on your lawn to kill the weeds. And that’s what the Ministry and the forestry companies are doing to the forest. They are spraying the bush with these glyphosate mixtures and they are killing all the good “weeds” that would grow into “pests” if they weren’t killed. The glyphosate mixtures they use in the forest have different additives to make the glyphosate stick longer to the foliage. What is considered the major food source for all the animals are considered weeds or pests to the logging companies. It’s not right. It’s not something to be killed or controlled. It’s food for the critters. 


Angela: What would you want our government to know? Or what would you want the government to do about this? Because it’s Health Canada that says glyphosate is safe for you.

Ken: Well, that was about six years ago when Health Canada claimed it was safe for humans, based on industry studies they have reviewed. But I don’t think they’ve done any studies to prove that it’s okay on animals. The Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry thinks it’s okay because Health Canada has approved it. And I am sure they have never done studies on animals in the forest. I’d like the government to do lots of studies on the animals. We have 13 species that we trap on our trapping ground. All of them depend on a mouse at the beginning. The food chain starts with the mice, then the squirrels eat the mice, the squirrels get eaten by the marten, the marten get eaten by the fisher, and on it goes all the way up the chain. If the mice don’t have the seeds such as pin cherries, chokecherries, blueberries (all of those plants are killed when they spray), there will be no small rodents. And the birds, all the birds that migrate, need seed-bearing trees, berries, all kinds of seeds that deciduous trees have. There is not enough plant life left to sustain a healthy bird population. I believe this is why the bird populations are on the decline. 

Angela: Would you be satisfied if the government said we are going to do studies? Would that be enough? Or do you want something else to be done?

Ken: I think they have to stop the spray by putting a ban on glyphosate, any of the herbicides or pesticides that are lethal to the broadleaf plants. They should stop the use of harmful pesticides until they do studies on the wildlife. Both the health of the animals and the harm to the ecosystem. When I started on the trapline in 2002, we’d take 60 marten in a year. That wasn’t hurting the population. The next year we took 40. The following year we took 30. I only took two last year. There are hardly any martens around. There are no mice. They are not coming back. The food chain starts with mice and small birds. Partridge (or ruffled grouse) are very good main source of food in the fall. They need birch trees to survive in the winter. They eat birch buds all winter. That’s what they live on. The birch trees are almost nonexistent, except along the roadways where they don’t spray.

Angela: I know there are different parts of Canada that has been fighting this fight for years – decades actually. I know there is a lawyer, Joel Theriault, in Ontario who has been working on this for 20 years. This is an issue affecting most of our Canadian forests and people don’t know about it! You are the founder of the Facebook group, “Stop the Spray Canada” and I have been helping you build this momentum for this campaign to get people educated and aware that this is going on in our forests. I want people to know about it. I thank you for bringing this shocking truth to our attention and making it a national issue. I know BC has been fighting. New Brunswick and Nova Scotia are desperately fighting to keep what they have left of their Acadian forest. There are so many Canadians that don’t even know about this tragedy, and it’s huge what’s going on. So, again, I want to thank you for bringing this to our attention. 

Stop the Spray Canada Facebook Group was founded on February 16, 2021, by Ken Wilson, and the group is currently administered by his daughter Angela Gentile

Angela: You and your supporters have designed a logo for the Stop the Spray Canada campaign and have made some T-shirts. A portion of the sales of the T-shirt will go towards our campaign for education and awareness. There are a few of these special edition T-shirts left, in limited quantities. If anyone wants to get involved, we encourage people to visit Stop the Spray Canada Facebook page, Facebook members-only group and webpage. There are a few people who are working with us on this. They are amazing people, who are all passionate about saving our forests. I hope that this momentum gets building and we can do some things to help save our forests for the future generations. Are there any parting words you’d like to share?

Ken: I’d like to get all the band councils around this area on board with this. I want to talk to the MPP for this area, too. I need to speak to him personally. I need to communicate with both the provincial and federal leaders. That’s where I have to start. They have to start pulling up their socks and looking after our forests rather than let them being run by the forestry companies. 

Angela: Yes! The First Nations communities are also onboard. I know that they have been willing to provide letters of support in this cause. We have a number of them posted in our Facebook group. They are the keepers of our forests in most parts of Canada. They are who look after things for us who are in the smaller rural communities and larger cities. If we can get everyone on board, even cottagers, people who like to hike through the forest. There are so many users of the forest that can get involved. Thank you very much for taking this time to educate us and share your experiences. We also appreciate the sharing of that letter you wrote to some of your government officials in March 2020 advocating for the ban of glyphosate. It’s travelling around, people are reading it. 

Ken: I sent that letter to the Ministry of the Environment right downtown Toronto, but I guess I should have sent it to the Federal government, too, to the Prime Minister’s office – The Minister of Natural Resources and Forestry. 

Angela: Yes, there is still time. Everybody can write letters, everyone can ask to meet with their government officials. We are going to get this done! So, thank you again for your time!

Join the Stop the Spray Canada Facebook Group: https://www.facebook.com/groups/stopthespraycanada

Follow the Stop the Spray Canada Facebook Page: https://www.facebook.com/stopthespraycanada

Check out the Stop the Spray Canada webpage: http://nlmotel.com/stop-the-spray-canada/

The Harsh Reality of a COVID-Style Livestreamed Funeral

(Angel image courtesy of Pixabay)

On a cold January morning in 2021, I watched a live, one-hour, online Catholic funeral of a dear friend of the family. This was a unique one, as it was the first livestreamed funeral I have ever attended. Also, it was held during the COVID-19 pandemic. It was held in a very beautiful church in Winnipeg, Manitoba. 

My first thought after it ended was, “Well, that was different.” And the next was, “I watched it in my pajamas.” 

I then processed my feelings and felt I should write about it. For anyone else who has attended a livestream event like this, perhaps you can relate. 

The funeral was shown on YouTube as a live feed. Anyone with the link was able to get access to it. My daughter Simone and I watched it on our big screen Panasonic television from our living room as it air played from my iPhone using the YouTube app. My husband went to his father’s place to watch it there with him. We couldn’t all be together due to COVID restrictions. 

Nine family members were in attendance (I suspect there could have been ten), and it looks like it was the nine most important people in the woman’s life: her husband (now a widower), three children, three grandchildren, and two in-laws. 

The priest officiated. Everyone was wearing masks. Masks were taken off either to speak or take communion.

The deceased’s daughter gave a beautiful eulogy and gave us a history of her mom and her time in Italy and Canada. She also told us how hard it was to see her mom get sick during COVID. She wishes she had kissed her mom one last time on Jan. 13, but she wasn’t able to due to physically distanced restrictions. Facetiming was the best way for the family to communicate with her. Thank God there was a family session the day before she passed, when she was still conscious.

Watching a funeral from home is different, as you can verbalize things you normally wouldn’t say while attending a funeral. It’s an odd feeling.

Her granddaughter gave an emotional eulogy and told us, while tearing up, that she was so glad she gave her grandmother a big hug last July—even though she wasn’t supposed to. I said, out loud, “Good! I am glad, too.” She was emotional when she told us that she wishes she had been able to hug her grandmother more and be there for her in the last few months. COVID restrictions prevented them from getting close to one another. Hearing the granddaughter say this caused me to choke up. I said out loud, “COVID sucks. That’s horrible.” The realities of this horrible disease really hit home for me. 

Even though the audio and video of the livestream wasn’t the greatest, I was able to get a good feel for what was going on. Watching it from the comfort of our living room was the next best thing to being there. Thank God for technology.

There were two highlights for me. The first was the granddaughter’s speech as it was so heartfelt. I also loved how the priest took the burning incense and swung it over the casket, which was draped with a gold and cream-coloured cloth. This is the part of a Catholic funeral that I think is most meaningful. It symbolizes the person’s spirit rising into heaven. The smoke provides a visual of the spirit leaving the body and moving onwards. 

The daughter says Mom suffered for 15 years and she has been wanting to be with God for a while now. She is finally resting in peace. 

Experiencing this online funeral, in my pajamas, in my living room, has been another rude awakening to how COVID is affecting our lives. Not only did it take someone’s life, but it also took away the traditional, proper sendoff that Catholics are accustomed to.

It’s been over ten months since COVID uprooted our lives and changed our social norms. The vaccine is here, but it’s still going to be months before we start seeing any semblance of what life used to be like. 

I now have a first-hand account of how COVID can take the life of a dear one and what a COVID-safe Catholic funeral mass looks and feels like. It is very sad. It is hard to fathom that at a person’s greatest time of need—after losing a loved one—touches and hugs from people outside of their household is prohibited. 

What is there, however, is the community’s love and support. It’s all virtual and from a safe distance, but it’s there. I hope they feel it. I am sending lots of warm, caring virtual hugs to those grieving. 

Riposa in pace, dear one.

Angela G. Gentile, M.S.W, R.S.W.

The Wonderful World of Genealogy


For us folks who are family-oriented, learning details about one’s parents, grandparents, and beyond can provide life with lots of entertainment and richness.

During the COVID-19 Pandemic, I, like most everybody else, was stuck at home. A hobby I took up was genealogy. I had always dabbled in my family history, but now I have taken it on as a full-blown hobby.

Genealogy is the study of our ancestors — our parents, their parents, and so on. I found this great beginner’s guide and it has lots of tips and info for those who are just starting out.

I have been using a free resource called “FamilySearch.org” and it has helped me find information on my family. “FindaGrave.com” has also been a good resource. On top of the DNA tests I have done (with 23 and Me and Ancestry) I have discovered many new lines of family members I didn’t even know I had. So far I have traced back some of my roots by eight generations!

Archibald Campbell Davis. Source: Find a Grave

Archibald Campbell Davis family memorial monument. Source: FindaGrave

If you are interested in exploring more about your roots, your heritage, or your family —just jump in. Start with your parents and their parents, and see how far you can go.  Make sure you document the stories you hear. There are lots of genealogy groups on Facebook that can also help answer questions. One of the groups I find very helpful is “Canadian Genealogy.”

I recently found the burial sites of my maternal grandmother’s parents and both sets of grandparents (Phillips and Mowat). They are all buried in the Prospect Cemetery in Toronto. I had been mistakenly led to believe most of them were from Ireland and it would be difficult to find any records. It’s amazing when you find proof of your great-grand and great-great grandparents! It helps fill in some missing information on the family tree. I feel more whole when I get the details.

They say a person dies twice. Once when they stop breathing, and again when their name is said for the last time. My ancestors are being remembered and they live on in my heart. I honour their memories and look forward to learning more about them.


Angela G. Gentile, MSW, RSW

Grave-Photo Volunteering is Very Rewarding


Create-a-Forest, Thomson in the Park Cemetery, Winnipeg, Manitoba

Call me crazy if you’d like, but I have found a very rewarding hobby. Find A Grave: Millions of Cemetery Records, has a database full of memorials and photos of graves and they encourage folks to add to the database. They have a large volunteer base, and I have recently signed up to be a Photo Volunteer.

I stumbled across this opportunity as I was scrolling through my Facebook newsfeed. Jane had posted pictures of flowers she had come across as she was doing her volunteer photography of graves for the FindaGrave.com website. I asked her to tell me more about what she was doing and she explained. She says she goes out and takes photos of graves (in her area) for people that are requesting them. I was immediately interested in doing this for a few reasons.

1. Get outside. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic restrictions placed on us, social distancing was preventing me from fully enjoying the things I used to do. “Stay at home” was the message we were getting, but it was okay for us to go outside for a walk. Spending time outdoors in the fresh air and sunshine is something I was up for – especially now that it’s spring and the weather is turning. Most graves are found outdoors, so this was a perfect opportunity.

2. Family tree hobby. One of the hobbies I have taken up during the pandemic is researching my family tree. Online resources such as Ancestry and FamilySearch can only get you so far. Talking to my parents about their family history has created many opportunities for discussion. Family history can only be fully understood by talking to people and researching different avenues, such as obituaries and online records. FindaGrave offers links to ancestral knowledge and helps people fill in some missing pieces. Or, it can help people request information, such as a grave marker, which may help solidify the facts. Providing photos of graves to those who are searching for them is a way to enhance my genealogy and ancestry hobby. I have even requested a photo of my grandmother’s grave in Gravenhurst, Ontario (still waiting for this request to be fulfilled). I have also added photos of some of my loved ones’ markers.

3. I love photography. If I can combine my interest in taking photos with helping people, I am all in!

4. I need the exercise. Two months of sheltering at home (except for going to work and going for walks) has made me a bit lazy. Searching for a grave gets me out walking and it even takes a little bit of effort to clean up the grave and brush it off before a photo can be taken. And this can all be done within a safe distance from others!

5. Volunteer work can be very rewarding. I love helping others, so this has been a way I can help others from afar.

There are a few steps involved in helping someone find a grave. Many of these people live far away, so this is the only way they can get to see the grave (traveling is restricted right now, anyway).

First, you need to set up a free account on Findagrave.com. Then you have to review the listing of photo requests (under the tab “Contribute”; then “Photo Requests”) from cemeteries that are nearby. I had 131 requests in my area!

199710316_aa55b7c6-7db5-4672-925e-cd2cba9af7a4I started by choosing a cemetery that was closest to me (Waverley Memorial). I had a plot address that was provided by the “requestor.” I went out to search and I could not find the grave. I emailed the cemetery and they said I couldn’t find it because there was no marker! They offered to put a little yellow flag out to where the person was buried. I communicated this to the requestor, and she was appreciative that I was doing this for her. I went out again and took the photo with the little yellow flag. I uploaded it onto the FindaGrave. The requestor was very thankful.

I have done a few more of these requests since then, and the response I am getting from the requestors varies. One woman, I will call Betty, is in her 80s and lives out west. She had asked for a photo of her brother’s grave. I went out to the “Create-a-Forest” section of the Thomson in the Park Cemetery, and I was told that he was in “Pad B.” I looked all over that section, and I couldn’t find his marker anywhere. I emailed the cemetery and they forgot to tell me that this man’s ashes were spread around the section. I told Betty what I had learned and she was interested in getting a photo of the section.

“Hi Angela. You are such a blessing to me this morning. That would be so great to have two different pictures of the spot, but I don’t want you to go to any extra trouble. You are so appreciated. FYI: David was one of five older brothers, 10 1/2 years my senior. I am almost 82 and live in BC and traveling for me, even under normal conditions, is becoming difficult. Thank you so much, and may God bless you! Betty”

I went back out and took lots of photos. I uploaded two photos of the area where his ashes were sprinkled, and she was very appreciative.



“Angela, I cannot thank you enough for the beautiful pictures. They are so much better than I imagined. Thanks again. Warmest regards, Betty”

Another interesting find I came across on FindaGrave was the memorial of one of my ancestors who was born 200 years ago! It is quite a rush when you find historical information about your own heritage.

Check out FindaGrave and see if there is anything for you to explore! And if you are up for it, become a Photo Volunteer like me.


Angela G. Gentile, MSW, RSW



“Influenza 1918” – A book summary and thoughts on THEN and NOW (LONG)



Book – “Influenza 1918: Disease, death, and struggle in Winnipeg” by Esyllt W. Jones (2007)

The COVID-19 Pandemic has turned our world upside-down. I wanted to do what I usually do in difficult times, which is to educate myself on what we were up against. Although the novel coronavirus is new, pandemics are not. The world has had other deadly and highly contagious microbes that it has dealt with, and it is documented in history. There are similarities to the Influenza of 1918-1919, also known as the “Spanish Flu.”


Arthur Hilton Davis (1880-1919) and his wife Nellie Ian Kitchen (1883-1955). Circa early 1900.

There are many books written on pandemics, and I wanted to start with something closer to home. I live in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, and my late grandfather (Hilton Arthur Davis, see the photo of him and his family below) used to tell my mother, Virginia, stories about how, when he was 7-years-old, there was a flu outbreak, and he lost his father and a sister in the spring of 1919. My great grandfather (Arthur Hilton Davis see photo above) and his daughter (Muriel Davis) are now buried in the Brookside Cemetery here in Winnipeg (date of death April 4, 1919). My grandfather was laid to rest with them (and his mother) many years later.


My late grandfather Hilton Arthur Davis with his late wife Eunice Philips and children Virginia (baby) and Philip. (1946)

“Influenza 1918” by the historian Esyllt W.  Jones is a scholarly volume, based on the research she did during her post-doctoral fellowship at the University of Winnipeg. It is well-edited and referenced, making it a credible read. My current lived experience during this pandemic has already been made more understandable by having a glimpse into what my ancestors dealt with. Some were survivors; some were victims. I feel closer to them now after having devoured what Jones has revealed to us through her investigative and thorough research.

We are a month into the COVID-19 Pandemic, which was proclaimed on March 11, 2020. Manitoba’s Premier Brian Pallister declared a State of Emergency on March 20, 2020. Prime Minister Justin Trudeau has been taking the lead on the pandemic, with most of his press conferences delivered from his home. His wife, Sophie Gregoire Trudeau, had tested positive for the novel coronavirus, and both she and the Prime Minister were self-isolating (March 12, 2020). There is no better way to get an official leader on board with effective pandemic planning than having a spouse diagnosed with it. We are very fortunate here in Canada to have a federal leader and provincial premiers who “get it” and are making important decisions to help “flatten the curve,” in the hopes of saving lives. The latest prediction by our Canadian government is that we will lose 11,000 – 22,000 lives to COVID-19. We can keep that number on the low end if we all do our part by staying home (unless necessary), practicing physical (social) distancing (2 metres/6 feet apart), washing our hands often, not touching our face, and wearing a cloth mask when out in public to help reduce the chances of spreading our germs.

Jones has uncovered many facts and stories to help us understand what Winnipeg went through during 1918-1919. World War 1 had been raging for the past four years when the influenza epidemic (the flu) hit Winnipeg. The first signs of the flu started in March of 1918 in the USA, and it took a few months to reach our city. A truce was declared on November 11 in 1918, as the flu raged on. Sandwiched between the First World War (1914-1918) and the Winnipeg General Strike (May – June 1919), it is estimated that in a city of 180,000, the flu took the lives of 1,216 Winnipeggers. Thousands were infected. Globally, it is estimated the flu claimed between 50 and 100 million lives. Why was this monumental event practically glazed over and forgotten in our human history? Historians, epidemiologists, and others ask the same question.

I will now share some of the highlights in “Influenza 1918” that I found helpful and insightful. When we are up against what many have called an “unprecedented” and “unchartered” time, many of us feel unsettled, afraid, and anxious. Stress can be at an all-time high. Not knowing what the future holds can cause us to have difficulty coping in these uncertain times. “Influenza 1918” sheds some light on what has been done in the past, illuminating what was done right and what could have been done differently.

The book has seven chapters, covering a range of topics. Some chapters were of more interest to me, so you will have to read the book to get the “whole story.” The introduction provides a lay of the land and says the flu arrived in Winnipeg on September 30, 1918. The flu had travelled along with soldiers and “troop trains” carrying war veterans all across Canada. Mail boats were also suspect. Sydney, Nova Scotia, had had five deaths by that date. The early strategies implemented in Winnipeg were similar to those used by our neighbours in the USA, which was to educate the public and to reduce crowds. In our modern-day pandemic, we are doing that. We have also put in additional strategies such as frequently washing our hands, physical (social) distancing, not touching our face, staying home if we are sick, self-isolating for 14 days when we return from travelling, staying home in general, and the ultimate extremes of closing our borders and non-essential services.

Chapter One, “Influenza Spans the Globe.” Although there is some debate about how and when the flu started (a variant of Influenza A), many historical accounts point towards the first wave starting in the spring of 1918 in a military camp in Kansas. I watched a PBS documentary, “American Experience: Influenza 1918,” and they think it was when the soldiers were burning a pile of manure. These soldiers came down with an illness on March 5, 1918. The documentary uses the date of March 11, 1918, as the start date (this is very ironic, as the WHO declared the COVID-19 outbreak a pandemic on this day, 102 years later). The second wave began in either France or the USA in August 2018. In Winnipeg, the peak of the epidemic arrived in early November 1918. Nearly 700 new cases were reported to the health authorities daily. Many who died had not received any medical care. The flu had arrived in Winnipeg on the second of its third global waves. A less severe wave followed in early 1919, which is when my great-grandfather and one of his daughters succumbed to the illness. My late grandfather, a young boy at the time, told my mother (his daughter) of the flu epidemic, and he recounted memories of seeing boxes and caskets outside of houses.

Symptoms of the Influenza A variant included some mild and some severe:

  • General depression
  • Chills
  • Fever (sometimes 105 degrees)
  • Headache
  • Pain in the legs
  • Weakness and dizziness
  • Sore throat
  • Congestion
  • Frequent vomiting in severe cases
  • Respiratory infections (bronchitis and pneumonia)

For those afflicted, there was no medical cure, so they were “urged to rest and get plenty of fresh air.” There were many alternative and home remedies such as hanging mothballs around the neck to prevent infection and violet-leaf tea. Some advice was harmless; other advice was quite the opposite. The recommendation to use enemas perhaps caused more harm than it helped, as it caused more dehydration in the already dehydrated flu sufferers. The only advice I have been given by my doctor (and I am immunosuppressed) is to take Vitamin C supplements to help strengthen my immune system.

This flu was often fatal, and the most considerable number of deaths occurred in people between the ages of 20-40 (my great-grandfather was 39, my great-aunt was 6). The flu rarely took the lives of the very young or very old. The wealthier population, those with better food and shelter, suffered less than those who were poor. It has been estimated that Canada, with a population of about 9 million in 1918, experienced a loss of 55,000 people to the flu. This is equivalent to about 6.1 people per 1,000 (similar to India, England, and the USA). The death rates were higher in Italy and Spain (10.7 and 12.3 respectively) and tremendous in Western Samoa (236.1) and Cameroon (445.0).

Various strategies used to combat the flu included:

  • Quarantining entire communities
  • Fumigating incoming trains, passengers, luggage, and public transportation
  • Masks (in some communities it was optional, in others compulsory)
  • The public was told to avoid congregating
  • Closing schools, universities, medical school, boarding schools
  • Closing cinemas, theatres, billiard rooms, and other places of entertainment
  • Closing lodges,
  • Banning exhibitions and all public meetings and gatherings
  • Closing churches (less often)
  • Health authorities urged rest and plenty of fresh air
  • Prompt reporting of cases by physicians and the general public
  • No involuntary hospitalization or strict quarantine of the infected

After all was said and done, public health authorities tended to agree that civil cooperation and education were preferable means of disease containment, and were more effective than compulsory measures such as placarding homes and the wearing of masks.

Chapter Two, “Winnipeg 1918: Social History and Public Health,” provides the context on what the social and economic situation was like. In 1916, Manitoba women were the first in Canada to be given the right to vote. Many people had come to Winnipeg not because they had money, but because they wanted to make money. There was no universal health care in Canada until 1961. Those with money were able to afford hospital care. Some immigrants were poor, and they lived mainly in the north end of Winnipeg. The southern end had more wealth. The Winnipeg General Hospital was the largest privately-run hospital in the city (now known as the Health Sciences Centre). In 1918-1919, community-based nursing care service provided a significant and essential component of the influenza response. The nurses treated many immigrant families of the Margaret Scott Mission.

Chapter Three, “Every Citizen a Health Officer: Influenza in Winnipeg,” describes how each citizen of Winnipeg was encouraged to feel as if they were a health officer. Fifteen sick soldiers were scheduled to arrive in Winnipeg on a military train on September 30, 1918. It was difficult to contain the flu during wartime, as the war took precedence over public health. The government was not able to contain the disease, so Winnipeg citizens were encouraged to help enforce health measures. The motto was, “Help the authorities to suppress the flu.” Military travelers were considered one of the main vectors in the spread of the flu – especially for the prairies, and for Canada as a whole. Nowadays, the leading carriers of the virus are travelers, especially those from China, the US, Italy, and Spain. Packed airplanes and congested airports are of concern as are any densely populated communities, including cities, cruise ships, hospitals, and long-term care facilities.

If you or anyone you know is on social media, such as Facebook, you will see many memes and posts by your friends and family telling people to “Stay home.” Many of us have become health officers and promoters of the “safer at home” and “stay home” guidelines to help reduce the spread of the COVID-19 virus, therefore “flattening the curve.” Some of us have even become enforcers of the physical (social) distancing rule of two metres. You may hear someone telling you to “wash your hands” or “just stay home.”

On Monday, October 7, 1918, two infected soldiers died in Winnipeg while two others lay near death.  The local paper, the Winnipeg Tribune, and the Free Press were publishing articles soon after, some more alarmist than others. In attempts to prevent hysteria, the news of the spreading illness was presented by using facts, reassurance, and even humour. The Liberal government, at the time, preferred to avoid the sensationalization of the outbreak. The first civilian death in Winnipeg was reported on Thursday, October 10, 1918. Eventually, the Free Press started to publish articles that were more alarmist in tone. Humour was used to help to make the crisis emotionally more manageable. But come mid-November, the appropriateness of comedic relief was long gone.

Winnipeg’s first public health response was to ask the ill (“victims”) to respect a period of quarantine in their own homes. Compulsory isolation in hospitals or placing a health department notice (“placards”) on the homes of those infected was not enforced. Reporting was instrumental in helping the authorities determine when the outbreak would peak, and they paid particular attention to poor and immigrant districts. It was soon realized that this was not a disease of the poor and that anyone was at risk. By October 12, 1918, there were 48 known cases of the flu in Winnipeg. On Friday, October 18, what has been called “Black Friday,” 20 patients were admitted to the King George Hospital. The next day, officials reported on October 19, there were 330 cases of influenza and eight deaths in total. Health authorities talked about the “crest of the wave,” whereas now we talk about the “peak of the curve.”

A vaccine was favoured instead of placarding homes, as it was thought that people would be less willing to report cases. A new aggressive vaccine campaign ensued, with no positive effect. At the end of October, the number of cases was doubling daily and then rose to over 300 cases and over ten deaths per day. City public health officials later announced they would commence the placarding of all infected houses on October 31. Strict quarantine measures were necessary, and differences in the spread of the flu in educated and uneducated districts became evident.

Unfortunately, it was difficult to enforce the placarding and quarantine measures, and on top of that, 25 members of the police force were down with the flu by the end of November. A balancing act was needed to generate enough concern by the public but avoiding too much concern that would evolve into fear and panic.

On November 7 and 8, the Free Press mistakenly announced that a World War 1 truce had been declared. Impromptu crowds of celebration sprung up all over the city, “dispelling the epidemic’s ‘sensation of gloom.’” On November 11, a “joy fest rage” swept the city, and Winnipeggers were celebrating the end of the long war. These celebrations were not broken up by the officials, as it was determined, “If the people were told what to do to avoid the disease and they don’t do it, it’s up to them.” (Douglas). Four hundred nine (409) deaths were reported by November 18.

The turning point occurred on November 21. The crest of the wave had been reached, as only 195 cases of the flu had been reported the previous day—the lowest number since October 26. Deaths stabilized at nearly 30 per day. The public meeting ban had lasted 46 days, ending on November 25. The ban had caused “considerable unrest among businessmen.” By November 30, there were 122 new cases and 12 deaths.

The third wave of the influenza epidemic arrived in Winnipeg in mid-March. This time there was no placarding, no quarantines, and no public meeting bans. Two thousand three hundred forty-two (2,342) cases and 301 deaths were reported. I can only imagine the horror and grief my grandfather, his siblings, and his mother endured that spring on Home Street. Comparing to the fall wave, which took 915 lives, the third wave was milder but deadly for many. Most people died at home as there wasn’t sufficient accommodation in hospitals. I often wonder if the public health authorities had taken more measures as they did in the fall if my ancestors would have survived this last wave.

Chapter Four, “Volunteers and Victims: Women’s Relief and Social Order,” describes the volunteerism of over 650 mostly Anglo-Canadian women who provided help to those affected by the flu. These women were the faces of compassion and heroism, as hospitals and community nursing were not able to keep up with the demand. Many of these women did not have nursing training, however. Female teachers were highly sought after as volunteers. These volunteers were caring for the diseased. Providing personal care, feeding, comfort, and “easing the deaths” of the infected flu victims was a female role at the time. Men rarely stepped up to do this type of work. Unfortunately, many of the nurses and volunteers who cared for the ill became ill themselves. These women were seen as being courageous and brave. Sadly, “seven nurses in Winnipeg, some trained and others who were volunteers, died of the flu.”

In today’s pandemic, the volunteer call has not been made yet here in Winnipeg. I have seen it being done in New York, however. Here, I see acts of volunteerism springing up as women are making cloth masks (for example, my husband’s aunt made me some, and my friend received four homemade masks the other day from her female coworkers). Men and women are doing shopping for others. There is a new program in Winnipeg called the “Student-Senior Isolation Prevention Partnership,” where health professional students are providing weekly phone calls to seniors to help alleviate isolation. It is also important to note here that those 60 and older and those with underlying medical conditions are more at risk of dying from COVID-19 complications.

Chapter Five, “‘Men Cannot Be Allowed to Starve’: Influenza and Organized Labour,” explores the conflict that was generated by the disease. The working people, the public health authorities, and the state all experienced conflict because of the flu. Of note, it is possible to read about the Winnipeg General Strike of 1919 without knowing Winnipeg was confronting and had just endured a devastating disease. The Influenza of 1918-1919 came and went without much acknowledgment by the historians who covered the strike.

The bans on public gatherings and closures of businesses such as theatres and billiard rooms provoked opposition from the working class because of the economic hardship it caused them and their families. The modern-day Liberal Canadian government has pledged to financially support those who lost their jobs in the current pandemic, as well as businesses. This will hopefully help encourage people to stay home and help reduce the spread.

Chapter Six, “Influenza and the Construction of Collective Identity,” includes a look at the challenges to disease prevention and cure. Public health authorities believed that the flu could be avoided if people took the proper precautions and avoided panic.

THEN – For those who were stricken with the Influenza of 1918-1919, they were instructed to:

  • Go to bed at once and get rest and warmth
  • Take warm drinks, broths
  • Good nourishment
  • Good hygiene
  • Send for your physician as needed

NOW – Current guidelines on how to treat COVID-19 symptoms include:

  • Stay home
  • Rest
  • Drink frequently, 1.5 litres of warm or cold liquid/day
  • Protect your entourage by self-isolating in your room until you feel well
  • Use a separate bedroom and bathroom if available (don’t share towels)
  • Keep your environment clean, wash surfaces with disinfectant
  • Monitor symptoms and call your doctor or public health line for guidance
  • Seek help if needed
  • Stay informed

Workplaces were sites of contagion. People went to work even when they were ill. Many disobeyed the bans and quarantines. Those in public service and professional occupations – doctors, nurses, social workers, and child welfare workers – were undoubtedly at high risk.

Women were not only experiencing the ‘pains of war,’ but also the pains of the influenza epidemic as well. Then came the working-class strains and then the General Strike of 1919.

Influenza preventatives in 1918:

  • Camphor
  • Sulphur
  • Eucalyptus oil
  • Raw garlic
  • Poultices of hot bran
  • Lard mixed with camphor and chloroform or turpentine
  • Goose-grease

Sore throat remedies:

  • A sip of oil of cinnamon
  • A drink made of warm milk, ginger, sugar, pepper, and sugar

Alcohol was traditionally an essential prophylactic, and it was almost impossible to obtain unless a physician prescribed it. The officials stated that alcohol was not a treatment; however, pharmacists were accused of price gouging prescription medications that contained alcohol. Now the wine is pouring freely, and our liquor stores are deemed an essential service. Also, the current guidance is that any hand sanitizers we used should contain at least 60% alcohol!

The other interesting note here is that we have been encouraged to use household cleaners such as “Lysol wipes” or diluted bleach to help eliminate the COVID-19 virus. Back in 1918, they were “fumigating.” Not sure what they were using to fumigate with. Fumigating certain areas of hospitals, ships, planes, and trains sounds like a good idea if you ask me.

Chapter Seven, “Family Life after Influenza: Single Parents and Orphans.” Winnipeg lost many adults between the ages of 20 and 39. Like my grandfather, many were married and had children. Many single parents and orphans were left behind. Social supports, generosity, and community reciprocity helped these grief-stricken families get back up on their feet. The Winnipeg Children’s Aid Society and the Manitoba Mother’s Allowance provided resources and supports as needed. Men were more apt to remarry than women. Women were more prone to rely on friendships, family, and neighbours.

The “Conclusion” points out that the influenza pandemic of 1918 as the “best documented but least known pandemic in history.” Containment measures such as quarantine and placarding homes seemed to be ineffectual. The mask order, which lasted about a month, “had no apparent impact upon the increasing number of flu cases.”

Perhaps they could have considered adding the current guidelines:

  • Physical (social) distancing (of at least two metres/six feet)
  • Cover your cough and sneeze with a tissue or cough into your sleeve
  • Keeping groups down to 10 or under
  • Washing hands frequently with warm soap and water for at least 20 seconds and using alcohol-based sanitizer (at least 60% alcohol) if soap and water not available
  • Wearing cloth masks when out in public to help prevent the spreading of droplets to others
  • Staying home except when needing to get essentials such as groceries or medications
  • Working from home when possible
  • Self-isolating for 14 days after travelling or if feeling unwell

There was price gouging in the funeral industry, pharmaceuticals, and home remedies such as eucalyptus oil. Today, we see dwindling and high-demand supplies such as toilet paper and Tylenol. A positive side-effect we are experiencing for the average household is a decrease in the cost of gasoline – with prices currently at 66.9 cents per litre (CAD).

As the current pandemic days, weeks, and months ensue, we will be writing a new chapter in history. What will our “Pandemic 2020” book have to say about how our society handled this traumatic and life-changing event? How do we want it to go down in the books? Will it be discussed in the news and then disappear, much like the events of 1918-1919? What will happen to us? What will the world look like after the dust has settled?

If you are just as curious about your family tree as I am, check to see if you have any relatives who died in 1918 or 1919. They may have been a victim of the Influenza pandemic just like my great-grandfather and his daughter. Let me know if you find out anything, or you think I can help.

One can only hope our history will influence our future, and we can learn from it. Books like “Influenza 1918” by E. W. Jones helps shed light on our past and helps us cope in the present. Consider getting a copy of her book and see what you can glean from it. We will come together as a family, community, country, nation, and the world, supporting each other through this current pandemic.

You may also be interested in CBCNews (11 Apr 2020): How the Spanish flu compares to COVID-19: Lessons learned, answers still being pursued

Angela G. Gentile, MSW, RSW